Aug 22, 2008


ईश्वरो विक्रमी धन्वी मेधावी विक्रमः क्रमः ।

अनुत्तमो दुराधर्षः कृतज्ञःकृतिरात्मवान ॥

ഈശ്വരോ വിക്രമീ ധന്വീ മേധാവീ വിക്രമഃ ക്രമഃ

അനുത്തമോ ദുരാധര്ഷ കൃതജ്ഞ കൃതിരാത്മവാന്‍.

ஈச்வரோ விக்ரமீ தன்வீ மேதாவீ விக்கிரம க்ரம:

அனுத்தமோ துராதர்ஷ க்ரிதஞ: க்ரிதிராத்மவான்.

ಈಶ್ವರೋ ವಿಕ್ರಮೀ ಧನ್ವೀ ಮೇಧಾವೀ ವಿಕ್ರಮಃ ಕ್ರಮಃ

ಅನುತ್ತಮೋ ದುರಾಧರ್ಷ ಕೃತಜ್ಞ ಕ್ರಿಥಿರಾತ್ಮವಾನ.

ఈశ్వరో విక్రమీ ధన్వీ మేధావీ విక్రమః క్రమః

అనుత్తమో దురాధర్ష క్రిత కృతిరాత్మవాన్.

eesvaro vikramee dhanvee medhaavee vikramah kramah
anuttamo duraadharshah kritajnah kritir-aatmavaan।

74. Eesvarah - One who is Omnipotent, and so has all powers in Him to the full. The manifested powers of Life express themselves in every intelligent man as the power of action in the body (Kriyaa Sakti), the power of desire in the mind (Icchaa Sakti) and the power of knowledge in the intellect (Jnaana Sakti). All these three powers are manifestations of Him, and since He is the One everywhere, He is the total mighty power-the Great Vishnu.
75. Vikramee - One full of prowess (Vikrama), courage, daring. Or, it can be One who has “Special foot steps”. This term commemorates how the Lord, as Vamana, measured with His tiny three steps all the three worlds.
76. Dhanvee - Lord Vishnu’s Divine Bow is called ‘Saarnga’ and it is described as the mightiest among the weapons. One who is having this Mighty Bow at all times is Dhanvee. It can also remind us of His incarnation as Sree Ramachandraji, when, in order to protect the world from the mighty Raakshasas of Lanka, He had to dedicate a substantial part of His life almost constantly wielding his bow: hence Sri Rama came to be known as Dhanushpaani; in His attitude of protection He is known as Kodandaraama. Thus, the term Dhanvee, the Wielder of the bow, is quite appropriate for Vishnu. “I am Sri Rama among the Wielders of the bow” –Geeta Ch.l0, St. 31.

77. Medhaavee - Supremely intelligent; One who is capable of understanding everything. One who has the capacity to comprehend intellectually all that is happening around is called Medhaavee. Since Consciousness is the One Light in all living creatures, which illumines all intellects, and since Vishnu is this Infinite Consciousness, He is the One Knower, knowing all things, at all times, at once. Hence Sarasvati, the Goddess of Learning and Knowledge is described as the very tongue of Vishnu.
78. Vikramah - While describing the term Vikramee (75) we had already explained the meaning contents of Vikrama, and thus Vikrama is an appellation that had come to Vishnu as a result of His Supernatural Act of measuring the universe with three steps. Also, Vi means the “king-of-birds”, the white-necked eagle; Krama means steps and, therefore, ‘movement or travel’. In this sense Vikrama can mean: “One who rides on the white- eagle (mind) is Vishnu”-who is described as having Garuda for His vehicle (Vaahanam).
79. Kramah - He who is All-Pervading is Kramah. Because of His All-Pervasiveness, the Infinite is called as Vishnu. That which goes beyond the frontiers of the known is the Supreme, and, therefore, in the description of Him, who has manifested as the Cosmos, we have in Purushasookta an indication that He not only pervades all that is known but “extends even beyond by ten digits” (Atyatishthat Dasaangulam).
80. Anuttamah - One who is ‘incomparably Great’ in glory-Anuttamah. In the Sanskrit construction of the word, it means something more than what we have said; it means: ‘He is one, beyond whom there exists none who is greater than He (unexcelled). The Upanishad itself describes Him: In Geeta (XI-43) we read: “For Thy equal exists not, whence another superior to Thee?” In Sri Narayana Upanishad (12) we again read, “There is nothing above or below, equal to Him”.
81. Duraadharshah - One who cannot be attacked, stormed or beleaguered successfully. In short, He is All-Powerful. In the Puranas, we find Daityas and Asuras and others, mighty and powerful ones, become themselves helpless victims of His Power and come under His sway. To one who has realized the Infinite, the lower nature of the mind (Daityas) and the enchantments of the senses (Raakshasas) , are all helpless to overwhelm Him. “Rasopyasya Param Drishtvaa Nivartate” -Geeta Ch. 2, St. 59.
82. Kritajnah - He who knows all that is done by all: the One Knower who knows all physical activities, all emotional feelings, and all intellectual thoughts and motives. He illumines them all, in all, at all times. Hence He is called Kritajna. Vishnu is the One who knows clearly the exact depth of sincerity, the true ardency of devotion, the real amount of purity in the bosom of all his devotees, and, accordingly, brings joy and bliss to their hearts.
83. Kritih - The One, who is the very dynamism behind all activities. He is the Inevitability behind the result of actions. He is called Kritih because it is He who visits to bless the good and to punish the evil; in short; He is the One who rewards all our actions.
84. Aatmavaan - One who is the Self in all beings. In the Chandogya Upanishad (7.24.1) when the disciple asks, “Where does the Lord, the Infinite, stand established?” the Sruti answers, “In Its own glory established ever is the Self”-(Sve Mahimni Pratishthitah).



Inspiration & courtesy:
Contribution of Shivkumar Kalyanaraman, Professor, Department of ECSE, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, U.S.A.

Sanskrit script Courtesy:
Shri. N. Krishnamachari